“Only connect…
“Living in fragments no longer.”
E M Forster, Howard’s End

This report synthesises the initial analysis of factors that influence water and sanitation service delivery in small towns. Funded under a planning grant from the Bill and Melinda GatesFoundation and co-ordinated by Rachel Cardone, the research team are particularly grateful to Rachel and the Foundation for the opportunity to explore the issue of small town service provision through a wider lens.

Ken Caplan of BPD and Erik Harvey of WaterAid are extremely grateful to the many people who have contributed their time, effort and ideas to make this work stimulating, challenging and hopefully groundbreaking. We are particularly grateful to: the WaterAid country programme staff in Bangladesh, Madagascar, Nepal, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda for their contributions to the substance of this report, as well as their input and guidance during the country stakeholder consultation process; all the interviewees at the country level and internationally; DavidSchaub-Jones of BPD for his leadership during visits to Madagascar and Tanzania and inputs and contributions throughout the entire process; Alex Nash for his support with the analysis in Nigeria; Dr Maimuna Nalubega for her support with the analysis in Uganda; Karina de Souzaand Rebecca Welling for their research and preparation of the initial literature review; and SarahDobsevage and Rebekah Gee of WaterAid for their project management support throughout.

Particular recognition goes to the members of the Expert Advisory Panel – Adriana Allen, Maggie Bangser, Prof Roy Carr-Hill, Nishant Lalwani, James Manor, Meera Mehta, Prof Njuguna Ng’ethe and Gaye Thompson – who have provided tireless and insightful feedback and ideas that have been invaluable in helping us to develop our thinking around the work. In addition, thanks to Jeremy Ockelford for his guidance on the content, approach and key informants; to Josses Mugabi for support in initially framing the discussions, particularly around the literature; and to Mukami Kariuki for her involvement and contributions.

Our thanks to Mark Bushnell for his professionalism and diligence in capturing, editing and producing the videos that accompany and illustrate this report and to John Spence Arnold for capturing the footage in Nigeria and Tanzania.

Finally, to all involved, we are grateful for the spirit in which you engaged in the exercise with us, recognising that the end goal was not always obvious and the process was about as iterative as it could be. Please note that any factual errors are those of the authors. This paper should be cited as WaterAid/BPD (2010) Small town water and sanitation delivery. Taking a wider view.